Research and Publications

Clinical Research

SMART Arm’s functionality is based on the principles of neuro plastic transformation and is designed to deliver the key principles of experience-dependent neural plasticity.

Successful scientific & clinical research into applying the principles of neural plasticity to upper limb functional impairment recovery was funded via medical research grants during the period from 2003-2013.

PUBLICATIONS – SMART Arm Clinical Trials

Hayward KS, Neibling BA, Barker RN. Self-Administered, Home-Based SMART (Sensorimotor Active Rehabilitation Training) Arm Training: A Single-Case Report.Am J Occup Ther. 2015 Jul-Aug;69(4): p1-8.

Brauer SG, Hayward KS, Carson RG, Cresswell AG, Barker RN. The efficacy of SMART Arm training early after stroke for stroke survivors with severe upper limb disability: a protocol for a randomised controlled trial.BMC Neurol. 2013 Jul 2;13:71.

Hayward KS, Barker RN, Brauer SG, Lloyd D, Horsley SA, Carson RG. SMART Arm with outcome-triggered electrical stimulation: a pilot randomized clinical trial. Topics in Stroke Rehabilitation, 20, (4), 2013, p289 – 298

Barker RN, Brauer SG, Barry BK, Gill TJ, Carson RG. Training-induced modifications of corticospinal reactivity in severely affected stroke survivors. Experimental Brain Research, 2012, 221(2), 211-221.

Barker RN, Brauer SG, Carson RG. Training-induced changes in the pattern of triceps to biceps activation during reaching tasks after chronic and severe stroke. Experimental Brain Research, 2009, 196(4), 483-496.

Barker RN, Brauer SG, Carson RG. Training of reaching in stroke survivors with severe and chronic upper limb paresis using a novel nonrobotic device: A randomized clinical trial. Stroke, 2008, 39(6), 1800-1807.


Hayward KS, Brauer SG. Dose of arm activity training during acute and subacute rehabilitation post stroke: A systematic review of the literature.Clin Rehabil. 2015 Jan 7. [Epub ahead of print]

Eng XW, Brauer SG, Kuys SS, Lord M, Hayward KS. Factors Affecting the Ability of the Stroke Survivor to Drive Their Own Recovery outside of Therapy during Inpatient Stroke Rehabilitation.Stroke Res Treat. 2014;626538. Epub 2014 Mar 27.

Hayward KS, Kuys SS, Barker RN, Brauer SG. Can stroke survivors with severe upper arm disability achieve a clinically important change in arm function during inpatient rehabilitation? A multicentre, prospective, observational study. NeuroRehabilitation, 2014;35(1):17-23.

Hayward KS, Barker RN, Carson RG, Brauer SG. The effect of altering a single component of a rehabilitation programme on the functional recovery of stroke patients: a systematic review and meta-analysis, Clinical Rehabilitation, 28, (2), 2014, p107-17

Hayward KS, Barker RN, Wiseman AH, Brauer SG. Dose and content of training provided to stroke survivors with severe upper limb disability undertaking inpatient rehabilitation: An observational study.Brain Impairment. 2013, 14:392-405.

Bower, K., Gustafsson, L., Hoffman, T., & Barker, R. Self-management of upper limb recovery after stroke: How effectively do occupational therapists and physiotherapists train clients and carers? British Journal of Occupational Therapy, 2012, 75(4), 180-187.

Hayward KS, Barker RN, Brauer SG. Advances in neuromuscular electrical stimulation for the upper limb post-stroke. Physical Therapy Reviews, 2010 15:309-19

Hayward KS, Barker RN, Brauer SG. Interventions to promote upper limb recovery in stroke survivors with severe paresis: A systematic review. Disability and Rehabilitation, 2010, 32(24):1973–86.

Barker RN, Gill TJ, Brauer SG. Factors contributing to upper limb recovery after stroke: a survey of stroke survivors. Disability & Rehabilitation, 2007, 29:981-989.

Barker RN and Brauer SG. Upper limb recovery after stroke: the stroke survivors’ perspective. Disability & Rehabilitation, 2005, 27:1213-1223.